The process of spinning yarn is basically the same since the very beginning of its industrial production. Although during the last decades equipment evolved remarkably, allowing factories to increase quality and production capability and to reduce manual work, the process is still mechanical and requires the same steps as in the past.
Our partner Ják Spinning walks us through a brief overview of the ring spinning process, which is their specific step in the REACT overall process:
The first step is to open the fibers into very fine tufts. When necessary, it is possible to mix and blend two different fibers. The final scope of this phase is to move opened fibers in the chute feed system.
Once the tufts reach the carding machinery, they are opened again into individual fibers. This is the phase where impurities (trash particles, dust, etc..) and neps are removed. The carding generates a carded sliver which is moved to the drawframe process.
The drawframe process allows the sliver to be equalised and the fibers to be parallelised, in order to arrange them in a parallel fashion in the sliver strand by drafting. This process also contributes to dust removal. Also, during the drawframe it is possible to add carded sliver of different fibers/colors in order to blend them together.
The speed frame provides the attenuation of the sliver and inserts a small amount of twist to hold the strand of fibers together. The output of speed frame is the roving, which now has the needed consistency to bear the strain of the following step.
This is the heart of “ring” spinning and it’s the step where the roving is drawn to the specified degree of fineness and gets sufficient twist to the emerging strand of fibers, to form a continuous length of yarn. The final output of this process is yarn with different values/counts, from NE 3 up to NE 150.
This is the step of yarn finishing, where it is moved into the convenient package format known as bobbin.
This last step is not mandatory for all yarns. This process makes one single yarn from 2 separate yarns, by tying together two threads, around their longitudinal axis. This procedure gives yarn greater resistance and regularity and adds a particular appearance to it. Twisting is performed in order to make a stronger yarn that can be needed for specific uses, such as outdoor and awning fabrics.